Liquefied Natural Gas

The world has enormous quantities of , but much of it is in areas far from where the gas is needed. To move this cleaner-burning fuel across oceans, natural gas must be converted into liquefied natural gas (LNG), a process called liquefaction. LNG is natural gas that has been cooled to –260‹ F (–162‹ C), changing it from a gas into a liquid that is 1/600th of its original volume. This dramatic reduction allows it to be shipped safely and efficiently aboard specially designed LNG vessels. After arriving at its destination, LNG is warmed to return it to its gaseous state and delivered to natural gas customers through local pipelines.

LNG is not new. It has been transported for more than 50 years and has a strong safety record. An LNG spill would not damage the ground or leave any residue as it evaporates. In water, LNG is insoluble and would simply evaporate, making water-spill cleanup unnecessary. LNG is not stored under high pressure and is not explosive. Although a large amount of energy is stored in LNG, it cannot be released rapidly enough into the open environment to cause the overpressures associated with an explosion. LNG vapors (methane) mixed with air are not explosive in an unconfined environment.

While converting natural gas to and from LNG, stringent safety and security measures are employed.

The process of cooling natural gas into a liquid is called liquefaction. Like at any industrial facility, security issues for liquefaction facilities are tailored to regional and local concerns. Security can include physical barriers, personnel and equipment access control, site surveillance and intruder alert systems.

Shipping LNG Safely and Securely

LNG ships are equipped with sophisticated leak detection technology, emergency shutdown systems, advanced radar and positioning systems, and numerous other technologies designed to ensure the safe and secure transport of LNG.

LNG ships are double-hulled and heavily insulated, with an extensive cargo safety system. LNG is not stored under pressure. As in all modern oil tankers, sophisticated radar and positioning systems alert the crew to other traffic and hazards around the ship. Distress systems and beacons automatically send out signals if the ship experiences difficulty.

Ships also employ antipiracy and boarding measures and must comply with the requirements of the International Ship and Port Security Code. The cargo control room is manned continuously when cargo is being transferred to and from the ship.

LNG main characteristic and history

When natural gas is cooled to a temperature of approximately -260‹F [-160‹C] at atmospheric pressure it condenses to a liquid called liquefied natural gas (LNG). One volume of this liquid takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas at a stove burner tip. LNG weighs less than one-half that of water, actually about 45% as much. LNG is odorless, colorless, non-corrosive, and non-toxic. When vaporized it burns only in concentrations of 5% to 15% when mixed with air. Neither LNG, nor its vapor, can explode in an unconfined open environment.


Natural gas is composed primarily of methane (typically, at least 90%), but may also contain ethane, propane and heavier hydrocarbons. Small quantities of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds, and water may also be found in “pipeline” natural gas. The liquefaction process removes the oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds, and water. The process can also be designed to purify the LNG to almost 100% methane.


LNG tanks are always of double-wall construction with extremely efficient insulation between the walls. Large tanks are low aspect ratio (height to width) and cylindrical in design with a domed roof. Storage pressures in these tanks are very low, less than 5psig [0.3 barg]. Smaller quantities, 70,000 gallons [265 cubic meters] and less, are stored in horizontal or vertical, vacuum-jacketed, pressure vessels. These tanks may be at pressures any where from less than 5 psig [0.3 barg] to over 250 psig [16 barg]. LNG must be maintained cold (at least below -177‹F [-83‹C]) to remain a liquid, independent of pressure.


The insulation, as efficient as it is, will not keep the temperature of LNG cold by itself. LNG is stored as a “boiling cryogen,” that is, it is a very cold liquid at its boiling point for the pressure it is being stored. Stored LNG is analogous to boiling water, only 470‹F [243‹C] colder. The temperature of boiling water (212‹F [100‹C]) does not change, even with increased heat, as it is cooled by evaporation (steam generation). In much the same way, LNG will stay at near constant temperature if kept at constant pressure. This phenomenon is called “autorefrigeration”. As long as the steam (LNG vapor boil off) is allowed to leave the tea kettle (tank), the temperature will remain constant.

If the vapor is not drawn off, then the pressure and temperature inside the vessel will rise. However, even at 100 psig [6.7 barg], the LNG temperature will still be only about -200‹F [-129‹C].


[See also A Brief History of U.S. LNG Incidents] First, one must remember that LNG is a form of energy and must be respected as such. Today LNG is transported and stored as safely as any other liquid fuel. Before the storage of cryogenic liquids was fully understood, however, there was a serious incident involving LNG in Cleveland, Ohio in 1944. This incident virtually stopped all development of the LNG industry for 20 years. The race to the Moon led to a much better understanding of cryogenics and cryogenic storage with the expanded use of liquid hydrogen (-423‹F [-253‹C]) and liquid oxygen (-296‹F [-183‹C]). LNG technology grew from NASA’s advancement.


In addition toCleveland, there have two otherU.S.incidents sometimes attributed to LNG. A construction accident onStaten Islandin 1973 has been cited by some parties as an “LNG accident” because the construction crew was working inside an (empty, warm) LNG tank. In another case, the failure of an electrical seal on an LNG pump in 1979 permitted natural gas (not LNG) to enter an enclosed building. A spark of indeterminate origin caused the building to explode. As a result of this incident, the electrical code has been revised for the design of electrical seals used with all flammable fluids under pressure.


Compressed natural gas (CNG) is natural gas pressurized and stored in welding bottle-like tanks at pressures up to 3,600 psig [248 barg]. Typically, it is same composition of the local “pipeline” gas, with some of the water removed. CNG and LNG are both delivered to the engines as low pressure vapor (ounces [mbar] to 300 psig [20 barg]). CNG is often misrepresented as the only form natural gas can be used as vehicle fuel. LNG can be used to make LCNG. This process requires much less capital intensive equipment and about 15% of the operating and maintenance costs.


Liquid petroleum gas (LPG, and sometimes called propane) is often confused with LNG and vice versa. They are not the same and the differences are significant. LPG is composed primarily of propane (upwards to 95%) and smaller quantities of butane. LPG can be stored as a liquid in tanks by applying pressure alone. LPG is the “bottled gas” often found under BBQ grills. LPG has been used as fuel in light duty vehicles for many years. Many petrol stations in Europe have LPG pumps as well.

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